Moscow Kremlin – the oldest and the central part of the city (the capital of Russia) on the Borovitsky hill on the left bank of the river Moscow, one of the most beautiful architectural ensembles in the world. Area Kremlin in terms of irregular triangle and is equal to 27.5 hectares.
Bookmark the Kremlin walls oak was held November 25, 1339. The history of the Moscow Kremlin is closely linked with the most important events in the life of the Russian state. In the 12th century Moscow was a small settlement outpost that defended the way for Vladimir. In 1156 at the behest of Prince Yuri Dolgoruky it was built a fortified settlement center – the Kremlin.
The choice of location for the construction was dictated by strategic considerations: the Kremlin on a high hill at the confluence of the river Neglinnaya River in Moscow is to protect the mouth of two navigable rivers – Yauza and Vskhodni. He played a role and the beauty of the place – the hill was covered with dense boron, and before him stretched the picturesque meadows, cut the loops of the river.
The first Kremlin occupied an area of about four hectares. In addition to the wooden walls, it defended the ditches and embankments. In 1339 Grand Prince Ivan Kalita erected around the Kremlin were powerful oak walls.
In 1367 it was built the walls and towers of white stone, in 1485-95 – from a brick. The tower was in the 17th century. now existing tiered and canopied. In the Kremlin, Moscow first-class monuments of Russian architecture of 15-17 centuries .: churches – Assumption (1475-79), the Annunciation (1484-89) and Archangel (1505-08), the belfry “Ivan the Great” (1505-08, wraps in 1600) , Facets (1487-91), Terem Palace (1635-36). In 1776-87 the Senate building was built in 1839-1849 – B. Kremlin Palace in 1844-1851 – Armoury. In 1959-61 he built the State Kremlin Palace.
Among the 20 towers of the Kremlin of Moscow Spasskaya most significant (with the Kremlin chimes), St. Nicholas, Trinity, Borovitskaya. Saved remarkable monuments of Russian foundry art – “Tsar Cannon” (16 in.) And “Tsar Bell” (18 in.). In 1991 it created the State Historical and Cultural Museum-Preserve “The Moscow Kremlin“. The Moscow Kremlin is the residence of the President of the Russian Federation.