Istanbul (Turkish: Istanbul.) – The largest city, a seaport, a major industrial, commercial and cultural center of Turkey; the former capital of the Ottoman Empire and Byzantium. Located on the banks of the Bosphorus Strait.
The Turkic languages use toponym Istanbul [istambul]) has been celebrated since the X century and comes from the Greek – “the city” or “city”, received an indirect Greek name Constantinople.
Until 1930, the official, internationally accepted, the name of the city – Constantinople (Turkish: Konstantiniyye.), What is the acknowledged and Turkish Grand National Assembly: the signature of its authorized representatives are under the Treaty of Lausanne, the text of which uses only place name “Constantinople”.
Other historical name, is still used in the title of Patriarch of Constantinople – New Rome or Second Rome (Latin: Nova Roma.); up to 330 years old Byzantium. In medieval Russian chronicles and other literature often was called Constantinople or Konstantinov hail; in the Bulgarian and Serbian placename Tsarigrad and is currently used as an (un) official designation of the city.
After the international recognition of the Turkish Republic in 1923, on 29 October of the same year Ankara was declared the capital of the state (Caliphate continued to exist until March 1924). March 28, 1930 the Turkish authorities were instructed to use only the Turkish version of the name – Istanbul. In the Russian language, however, the traditional Russified version of the Turkish name – Istanbul.